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Материал для изучения, 8 кл.

Материал для изучения

Английский глагол в пассивном залоге.

Страдательный залог (Passive voice) в английском языке образуется с помощью глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице, числе и страдательного причастия (Participle II).
Примеры:
    Letters are sent there every day.
    The letter was sent yesterday.
    The letter will be sent tomorrow.

Страдательный залог употребляется обычно тогда, когда неизвестно, кто совершает действие. Важно лишь какое действие совершается и кто его испытывает. 
Пример:
    I was asked to do it. - Меня попросили это сделать.

Здесь важно что попросили именно меня, а не другого; кто попросил не важно.

На русский язык глаголы в страдательном залоге можно переводить несколькими способами:

1.   Глаголы оканчивающиеся на -ся, -сь:
Houses are built quickly in our town. - В нашем городе дома строятся быстро.

2.   Глаголом "быть" в сочетании с краткой формой причастия:
The British Museum was founded in 1753. - Британский музей был основан в 1753 году.
The house will be built next year. - Этот дом будет построен в следующем году.

3.   Неопределенно-личными предложениями с глаголами в действительном залоге в 3-м лице множественного числа:
I was invited to the theatre. - Меня пригласили в театр.
He was given an interesting book. - Ему дали интересную книгу.

Формы глагола в страдательном залоге

 

Indefinite

Perfect

 

Единственное число

Множественное число

Единственное число

Множественное число

Утвердительная форма

I am asked.
You are asked.
He (she, it) is asked.

 

 

 

 

Число

Утвердительная

форма

Вопросительная

форма

Отрицательная

Форма

1. Present indefinite passive

Ед.

I am asked.

You are asked.

He (she, it) is asked.

Am I asked?

Are you asked?

Is he (she, it) asked?

I am not asked.

You are not asked.

He (she, it) is not asked

Мн.

We (you, they) are asked

Are we (you, they) asked

We (you, they) are not asked

2. Past indefinite passive

Ед.

I (he, she, it) was asked.

You were asked.

Was I (he, she, it) asked?

Were you asked?

I (he, she, it) was not asked.

You were not asked.

Мн.

We (you, they) were asked

Were we (you, they) asked?

We (you, they) were not asked.

3. Future indefinite passive

Ед

I shall be asked.

You (he, she, it) will be asked.

Shall I be asked?

Will you (he, she, it) be asked?

I shall not be asked.

You (he, she, it) will not be asked.

Мн.

We shall be asked.

You (they) will be asked.

Shall we be asked?

Will you (they) be asked?

We shall not be asked.

You (they) will not be asked.

4. Present perfect passive

Ед.

I (you) have been asked.

He (she, it) has been asked

Have I (you) been asked?

Has he (she, it) been asked?

I (you) have not been asked.

He (she, it) has not been asked.

Мн.

We (you, they) have been asked.

Have we (you, they) been asked?

We (you, they) have not been asked.

5. Past perfect passive

Ед. и мн.

I (you, he, she, it, we, they) had been asked.

Had I (you, he, she, it, we, they) been asked?

I (you, he, she, it, we, they) had not been asked.

6. Future perfect passive

Ед.

I shall have been asked.

You (he, she, it) will have been asked.

Shall I have been asked?

Will you (he, she, it) have been asked?

I shall not have been asked.

You (he, she, it) will not have been asked.

Мн.

We shall have been asked.

You (they) will have been asked.

Shall we have been asked?

Will you (they) have been asked?

We shall not have been asked.

You (they) will not have been asked.

 

Категория: Материалы Бакуновой | Добавил: @Алиночка@ (01.02.2014) | Автор: Бакунова Алина Рамиловна E
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